01/04/2012

Efflux transporters in the blood-brain interfaces--in vitro and in vivo methods and correlations

Krajcsi P, Jani M, Tóth B, Erdő F, Kis E, Beéry E, Sziráki I. EXPERT OPIN DRUG METAB TOXICOL. 2012 Apr;8(4):419-431.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Sufficient brain exposure is crucial to the success of CNS drugs. The twofold greater attrition rate in clinical development of CNS drugs over the respective attrition rate of non-CNS drugs is due to lack of efficacy. It is generally thought that poor brain exposure is at least partly responsible for this, as the concentration-time profile at the brain target site is critical for efficacy. Efflux transporters in the blood-brain interfaces play a crucial role in modulation of permeability of drugs across these interfaces. Validation of preclinical tools to correctly predict brain exposure in humans is essential.

AREAS COVERED:
This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo tools to detect and characterize interactions of drugs with efflux transporters relevant to blood-brain interfaces. Furthermore, the article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and the limitations of their application, in addition to covering in vitro - in vivo correlations.
A more detailed validation of in vitro efflux transporter assays employing primary brain endothelial cultures is needed. This should go along with mapping uptake transporters expressed in the blood-brain interfaces. With the availability of specific inhibitors, utilization of in vivo methods such as brain microdialysis is increasing. Once transporter-humanized mice are available, we may witness a further increase in applications of in vivo methods.

EXPERT OPINION: A more detailed validation of in vitro efflux transporter assays employing primary brain endothelial cultures is needed. This should go along with mapping uptake transporters expressed in the blood-brain interfaces. With the availability of specific inhibitors, utilization of in vivo methods such as brain microdialysis is increasing. Once transporter-humanized mice are available, we may witness a further increase in applications of in vivo methods.

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