08/11/2023 - Role of transporters in drug ADME New

Goldenseal-Mediated Inhibition of Intestinal Uptake Transporters Decreases Metformin Systemic Exposure in Mice

Victoria O Oyanna 1, Kenisha Y Garcia-Torres 1, Baron J Bechtold 1, Katherine D Lynch 1, M Ridge Call 1, Miklós Horváth 1, Preston K Manwill 1, Tyler N Graf 1, Nadja B Cech 1, Nicholas H Oberlies 1, Mary F Paine 1, John D Clarke 2

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PMID: 37562957 PMCID: PMC10586506 DOI: 10.1124/dmd.123.001360

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Goldenseal is a perennial plant native to eastern North America. A recent clinical study reported goldenseal decreased metformin Cmax and area under the blood concentration versus time curve (AUC) by 27% and 23%, respectively, but half-life and renal clearance were unchanged. These observations suggested goldenseal altered processes involved in metformin absorption. The underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) unknown. One mechanism for the decreased metformin systemic exposure is inhibition by goldenseal of intestinal uptake transporters involved in metformin absorption. Goldenseal extract and three goldenseal alkaloids (berberine, (-)-β-hydrastine, hydrastinine) were tested as inhibitors of organic cation transporter (OCT) 3, plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT), and thiamine transporter (THTR) 2 using human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing each transporter. The goldenseal extract, normalized to berberine content, was the strongest inhibitor of each transporter (IC50: 4.9, 13.1, and 5.8 μM for OCT3, PMAT, and THTR2, respectively). A pharmacokinetic study in mice compared the effects of berberine, (-)-β-hydrastine, goldenseal extract, and imatinib (OCT inhibitor) on orally administered metformin. Goldenseal extract and imatinib significantly decreased metformin Cmax by 31% and 25%, respectively, and had no effect on half-life. Berberine and (-)-β-hydrastine had no effect on metformin pharmacokinetics, indicating neither alkaloid alone precipitated the interaction in vivo. A follow-up murine study involving intravenous metformin and oral inhibitors examined the contributions of basolateral enteric/hepatic uptake transporters to the goldenseal-metformin interaction. Goldenseal extract and imatinib had no effect on metformin AUC and half-life, suggesting lack of inhibition of basolateral enteric/hepatic uptake transporters. Results may have implications for patients taking goldenseal with drugs that are substrates for OCT3 and THTR2. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Goldenseal is used to self-treat respiratory infections and digestive disorders. We investigated potential mechanisms for the clinical pharmacokinetic interaction observed between goldenseal and metformin, specifically inhibition by goldenseal of intestinal uptake transporters (OCT3, PMAT, THTR2) involved in metformin absorption. Goldenseal extract inhibited all three transporters in vitro and decreased metformin systemic exposure in mice. These data may have broader implications for patients co-consuming goldenseal with other drugs that are substrates for these transporters.

Copyright © 2023 by The Author(s).

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