Tupova L, Ceckova M, Ambrus C, Sorf A, Ptackova Z, Gaborik Z, Staud F.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2019 Sep;47(9):954-960. doi: 10.1124/dmd.119.087684. Epub 2019 Jul 2.
Maraviroc is a chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that also shows therapeutic potential for several autoimmune, cancer, and inflammatory diseases that can afflict pregnant women. However, only limited information exists on the mechanisms underlying the transplacental transfer of the drug. We aimed to expand the current knowledge base on how maraviroc interacts with several placental ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters that have a recognized role in the protection of a developing fetus: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2), and multidrug resistance protein 2 (ABCC2). We found that maraviroc does not inhibit any of the three studied ABC transporters and that its permeability is not affected by ABCG2 or ABCC2. However, our in vitro results revealed that maraviroc shows affinity for human ABCB1 and the endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (Abcb1) expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells. Perfusion of rat term placenta showed accelerated transport of maraviroc in the fetal-to-maternal direction, which suggests that ABCB1/Abcb1 facilitates in situ maraviroc transport. This transplacental transport was saturable and significantly diminished after the addition of the ABCB1/Abcb1 inhibitors elacridar, zosuquidar, and ritonavir. Our results indicate that neither ABCG2 nor ABCC2 influence maraviroc pharmacokinetic but that ABCB1/Abcb1 may be partly responsible for the decreased transplacental permeability of maraviroc to the fetus. The strong affinity of maraviroc to Abcb1 found in our animal models necessitates studies in human tissue so that maraviroc pharmacokinetics in pregnant women can be fully understood. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Antiretroviral drug maraviroc shows low toxicity and is thus a good candidate for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus when failure of recommended therapy occurs. Using in vitro cell-based experiments and in situ dually perfused rat term placenta, we examined maraviroc interaction with the placental ABC drug transporters ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC2. We demonstrate for the first time that placental ABCB1 significantly reduces mother-to-fetus transport of maraviroc, which suggests that ABCB1 may be responsible for the low cord-blood/maternal-blood ratio observed in humans.
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