Aliases: CT1, UST2r
Gene name: Solute carrier family 22 member 5 (SLC22A5)
Rat Octn2 (organic cation/carnitine transporter novel type 2) is a specific sodium/L-carnitine co-transporter . OCTN2/Octn2 was one of the first uptake transporters cloned from rat [1, 2], human  and mouse  tissues, respectively. Expression of OCTN2/Octn2 is relatively ubiquitous . In general, tissue distribution of OCTN2/Octn2 is similar in human and rats [6-12], while a few differences do exist in function. OCTN2/Octn2-mediated organic cation transport is pH-sensitive [13, 14].
Human and rat OCTN2/Octn2 show an overlapping but somewhat different substrate and inhibitor specificity. Transport properties of rat Octn2 and human OCTN2 expressed on the same genetic background using L-carnitine, a physiological substrate, and mildronate, the most efficiently transported drug was correlated by Szabó and coworkers . The data indicated that Octn2 has substrate specificity similar to that of OCTN2; however, human OCTN2 has a higher affinity for L-carnitine compared to that of rat Octn2. As free L-carnitine levels are close to its total plasma levels (20-60 µM) [16, 17], the in vitro data also means that the transporters operate at or close to maximum rates in humans and rats to supply carnitine to tissues in vivo. A similar difference was observed in the affinity of OCTN2/Octn2 towards mildronate. Furthermore, many pharmacologically important drugs were shown to affect L-carnitine transport by OCTN2/Octn2. The transporters from these two species showed different but overlapping inhibitor specificities as the differences in IC50 values were less than 3-fold for 13 of 15 compounds tested.
These data suggest that in vivo rat preclinical models may be applicable to predict human OCTN2-mediated toxicity and adverse events in the clinic, but in vitro differences between Octn2/OCTN2 transporter profiles should be taken into account.
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